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WTO-møde 27/7-1/8 - resultater, konklusioner og endelig aftaletekst

Bilag tilgået Folketingets Europaudvalg

Hent bilaget i PDF-format her

Medlemmerne af Folketingets Europaudvalg

og deres stedfortrædere

Bilag

Journalnummer

1

400.C.2-0

EUK

3. august 2004

Der har den 27. juli – 1. august 2004 været afholdt møde i WTO’s Generelle Råd. Til Udvalgets underretning vedlægges Udenrigsministeriets notat om mødets forløb og resultater sammen med den endelige aftaletekst.

Undervejs i WTO-forhandlingerne mødtes Rådet for almindelige anliggender og eksterne forbindelser (GAERC) til formelle og uformelle møder for at drøfte situationen, jf. den løbende afrapportering om situationen fra den danske repræsentant ved møderne i WTO´s Generelle Råd og i GAERC, Danmarks faste WTO-ambassadør Henrik Rée Iversen, til formanden for Europaudvalget. I den forbindelse vedlægges EU-formandskabets konklusioner fra ekstraordinært møde i GAERC den 30. juli 2004.

Konklusionsteksten findes ikke elektronisk og vedlægges derfor alene i papirkopi.

NOTAT

Udenrigsministeriet

Til:

Folketingets Europaudvalg

J.nr.:

97.A.40/2.a

CC:

Bilag:

Fra:

Udenrigsministeriet

Dato:

2. august 2004

Emne:

Møde i WTO's Generelle Råd den 27. juli - 1. august 2004.

1. Indledning - forhandlingsforløbet.

Efter forhandlingssammenbruddet i Cancun har der fra mange sider herunder EU og USA været udfoldet store anstrengelser for at genstarte Doha-processen. Der har været afholdt mange møder i større og mindre grupper. Til sidst lykkedes det de såkaldt 5 interesserede parter, som består af EU, USA, Australien, Brasilien og Indien, at forhandle sig frem til en overordnet løsning på landbrugsområdet. Da Brasilien og Indien repræsenterer den såkaldte Group of 20, som for tiden tæller 19 medlemmer (Argentina, Bolivia, Brasilien, Chile, Kina, Cuba, Egypten, Indien, Indonesien, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Filippinerne, Sydafrika, Thailand, Tanzania, Venezuela og Zimbabwe) har der været tale om en samlet set ganske bred kreds på i alt 46 lande, som svarer til en tredjedel af WTO’s medlemmer og dækker mange forskelligt rettede interesser. Efterfølgende har der yderligere været en lang række møder og konsultationer om såvel landbrug som de øvrige emner, hvor flere lande og landegrupper har været inddraget, således at formanden, ambassadør Oshima fra Japan, sammen med WTO’s generaldirektør Supachai kunne fremlægge en kompromistekst, som efter yderligere svære forhandlinger blev ændret på en række punkter, for til sidst at få den tredje og sidste udformning, som fremgår af vedlagte dokument og corrigendum.

Der er tale om en beslutning med 4 bilag vedtaget af WTO’s Generelle Råd. De 4 bilag vedrører landbrug, øget markedsadgang for andre produkter end landbrugsvarer, tjenesteydelser og handelslettelse.

Aftalen har karakter af en ramme og et arbejdsprogram for de videre forhandlinger under Doha-runden. Om alt går vel, vil der til det næste ministermøde i Hongkong i slutningen af 2005 foreligge en egentlig aftaletekst, som i detaljer udfylder den nu vedtagne ramme. Det lykkedes således WTO i Genève at færdiggøre det arbejde, man påbegyndte under ministerkonferencen i Cancun i september 03.

2. Landbrug.

Langt de største anstrengelser blev viet landbrugsafsnittet, som også er blevet den mest substantielle del af det færdige dokument. Hermed er der taget et meget væsentligt skridt i retning af at opfylde det løfte om senere forhandlinger om øget liberalisering på landbrugsområdet, som var en del af Uruguay-runde aftalen.

For det første er det lykkedes at sikre, at den reform af den fælles landbrugspolitik, som EU har påbegyndt, ikke skal stå alene, idet andre lande med en omfattende landbrugsstøtte herunder USA i kraft af den opnåede enighed i WTO også vil blive forpligtet til at reformere deres støtteordninger.

For det andet er det sikret, at alle de i WTO aftalte tiltag omkring en nedtrapning af såvel den interne støtte som eksportstøtten ligger inden for rammerne af de reformer, som EU allerede har vedtaget eller for sukkers vedkommende vil vedtage.

For det tredje har EU i kraft af en offensiv udnyttelse af landbrugsreformerne fået sig placeret som den ledende aktør på den handelspolitiske scene, hvorved man også med held har kunnet være toneangivende med hensyn til at sikre udviklingslandene fornuftige vilkår. Det er i denne forbindelse væsentligt, at det er lykkedes at få en aftale mellem de bomuldsproducerende udviklingslande, EU og USA om, at bomuld i forbindelse med de videre forhandlinger på landbrugsområdet skal nyde særlig og omgående bevågenhed, således at spørgsmålet behandles både ud fra en handelsvinkel og som et udviklingsspørgsmål.

3. Andre spørgsmål herunder udviklingsaspektet.

Bilagene vedrørende de øvrige 3 emner er mindre omfattende. Her udstikkes rammerne for øget liberalisering af handlen med industriprodukter og serviceydelser, således at de respektive WTO-organer nu kan gå videre med deres arbejde. I bilaget om handelslettelse omtales mulighederne for at sikre en mere effektiv og enkel tilrettelæggelse af selve handelsforløbet, således at man får afskaffet eksisterende flaskehalse og praktiske handelshindringer. Da der i høj grad er tale om problemer i udviklingslandene understreges det, at der skal tages særlige hensyn til disse lande og sikres den nødvendige tekniske bistand. Handelslettelse er således det eneste af de 4 såkaldte Singapore emner, som fortsat er med i Doha-runden, idet de andre vedrørende handel og investering, konkurrence og transparens i offentlige indkøb ikke vil blive taget op, hvorfor behandlingen af disse emner i givet fald må tages op senere.

Både selve erklæringen, som indeholder et langt afsnit d. om udvikling, og de 4 bilag er i stort omfang helliget udviklingslandenes særlige problemer og den udviklingsmæssige dimension i Doha-runden. Det understreges gang på gang, at der skal tages særlige hensyn til udviklingslandene både i form af øget markedsadgang i de udviklede lande og således, at udviklingslandene i vidt omfang får mulighed for at opnå særlig skånsom behandling eller slippe for forpligtigelser. Hensynet til udviklingslandene, herunder øget teknisk bistand, går som en rød tråd gennem dokumentet, hvilket ikke mindst skyldes en aktiv indsats fra EU’s og Danmarks side. Indtil videre har udviklingslandene særligt lagt vægt på alle de ting, man vil undgå, og det har været svært at engagere disse lande i en dialog om de dynamiske muligheder et større engagement i den internationale handel kunne give, bl.a. i form af øget syd/syd handel. Det ekstra engagement til fordel for de dårligst stillede udviklingslande, som ligger Danmark og også EU på sinde, er stødt på betydelig modstand, idet udviklingslandene i vidt omfang fastholder, at hele gruppen skal have samme behandling uanset, at der er udviklingslande, som i dag har en højere indkomst end nogle af de fattigste blandt EU’s nye medlemmer.

4. Det videre forløb.

Efter sommerferien vil man i WTO begynde på de detaljerede forhandlinger og nøgleordet for det fortsatte arbejde vil være "balance", idet det gang på gang i teksten og under de hidtidige forhandlinger er blevet understreget, at et af hovedformålene er at sikre den rette balance mellem de forskellige lande og landegruppers interesser såvel inden for de enkelte afsnit som mellem disse afsnit. Det var således fremgang i forhandlingerne om landbrug, som netop ud fra balancehensynet skabte mulighed for enighed og fremdrift også på de øvrige områder.

Udenrigsministeriet

WT/GC/W/535 (1)
31 July 2004

Draft General Council Decision of 31 July 2004

1.  The General Council reaffirms the Ministerial Declarations and Decisions adopted at Doha and the full commitment of all Members to give effect to them. The Council emphasizes Members' resolve to complete the Doha Work Programme fully and to conclude successfully the negotiations launched at Doha. Taking into account the Ministerial Statement adopted at Cancún on 14 September 2003, and the statements by the Council Chairman and the Director-General at the Council meeting of 15-16 December 2003, the Council takes note of the report by the Chairman of the Trade Negotiations Committee (TNC) and agrees to take action as follows:

(a)  Agriculture: the General Council adopts the framework set out in Annex A to this document.

(b)  Cotton: the General Council reaffirms the importance of the Sectoral Initiative on Cotton and takes note of the parameters set out in Annex A within which the trade-related aspects of this issue will be pursued in the agriculture negotiations. The General Council also attaches importance to the development aspects of the Cotton Initiative and wishes to stress the complementarity between the trade and development aspects. The Council takes note of the recent Workshop on Cotton in Cotonou on 23-24 March 2004 organized by the WTO Secretariat, and other bilateral and multilateral efforts to make progress on the development assistance aspects and instructs the Secretariat to continue to work with the development community and to provide the Council with periodic reports on relevant developments.

Members should work on related issues of development multilaterally with the international financial institutions, continue their bilateral programmes, and all developed countries are urged to participate. In this regard, the General Council instructs the Director General to consult with the relevant international organizations, including the Bretton Woods Institutions, the Food and Agriculture Organization and the International Trade Centre to direct effectively existing programmes and any additional resources towards development of the economies where cotton has vital importance.

(c)  Non-agricultural Market Access: the General Council adopts the framework set out in Annex B to this document.

(d)  Development:

Principles: development concerns form an integral part of the Doha Ministerial Declaration. The General Council rededicates and recommits Members to fulfilling the development dimension of the Doha Development Agenda, which places the needs and interests of developing and least-developed countries at the heart of the Doha Work Programme. The Council reiterates the important role that enhanced market access, balanced rules, and well targeted, sustainably financed technical assistance and capacity building programmes can play in the economic development of these countries.

Special and Differential Treatment: the General Council reaffirms that provisions for special and differential (S&D) treatment are an integral part of the WTO Agreements. The Council recalls Ministers' decision in Doha to review all S&D treatment provisions with a view to strengthening them and making them more precise, effective and operational. The Council recognizes the progress that has been made so far. The Council instructs the Committee on Trade and Development in Special Session to expeditiously complete the review of all the outstanding Agreement-specific proposals and report to the General Council, with clear recommendations for a decision, by July 2005. The Council further instructs the Committee, within the parameters of the Doha mandate, to address all other outstanding work, including on the cross-cutting issues, the monitoring mechanism and the incorporation of S&D treatment into the architecture of WTO rules, as referred to in TN/CTD/7 and report, as appropriate, to the General Council.

The Council also instructs all WTO bodies to which proposals in Category II have been referred to expeditiously complete the consideration of these proposals and report to the General Council, with clear recommendations for a decision, as soon as possible and no later than July 2005. In doing so these bodies will ensure that, as far as possible, their meetings do not overlap so as to enable full and effective participation of developing countries in these discussions.

Technical Assistance: the General Council recognizes the progress that has been made since the Doha Ministerial Conference in expanding Trade-Related Technical Assistance (TRTA) to developing countries and low-income countries in transition. In furthering this effort the Council affirms that such countries, and in particular least-developed countries, should be provided with enhanced TRTA and capacity building, to increase their effective participation in the negotiations, to facilitate their implementation of WTO rules, and to enable them to adjust and diversify their economies. In this context the Council welcomes and further encourages the improved coordination with other agencies, including under the Integrated Framework for TRTA for the LDCs (IF) and the Joint Integrated Technical Assistance Programme (JITAP).

Implementation: concerning implementation-related issues, the General Council reaffirms the mandates Ministers gave in paragraph 12 of the Doha Ministerial Declaration and the Doha Decision on Implementation-Related Issues and Concerns, and renews Members' determination to find appropriate solutions to outstanding issues. The Council instructs the Trade Negotiations Committee, negotiating bodies and other WTO bodies concerned to redouble their efforts to find appropriate solutions as a priority. Without prejudice to the positions of Members, the Council requests the Director-General to continue with his consultative process on all outstanding implementation issues under paragraph 12(b) of the Doha Ministerial Declaration, including on issues related to the extension of the protection of geographical indications provided for in Article 23 of the TRIPS Agreement to products other than wines and spirits, if need be by appointing Chairpersons of concerned WTO bodies as his Friends and/or by holding dedicated consultations. The Director-General shall report to the TNC and the General Council no later than May 2005. The Council shall review progress and take any appropriate action no later than July 2005.

Other Development Issues: in the ongoing market access negotiations, recognising the fundamental principles of the WTO and relevant provisions of GATT 1994, special attention shall be given to the specific trade and development related needs and concerns of developing countries, including capacity constraints. These particular concerns of developing countries, including relating to food security, rural development, livelihood, preferences, commodities and net food imports, as well as prior unilateral liberalisation, should be taken into consideration, as appropriate, in the course of the Agriculture and NAMA negotiations. The trade-related issues identified for the fuller integration of small, vulnerable economies into the multilateral trading system, should also be addressed, without creating a sub-category of Members, as part of a work programme, as mandated in paragraph 35 of the Doha Ministerial Declaration.

Least-Developed Countries: the General Council reaffirms the commitments made at Doha concerning least-developed countries and renews its determination to fulfil these commitments. Members will continue to take due account of the concerns of least-developed countries in the negotiations. The Council confirms that nothing in this Decision shall detract in any way from the special provisions agreed by Members in respect of these countries.

(e)  Services: the General Council takes note of the report to the TNC by the Special Session of the Council for Trade in Services (
2) and reaffirms Members' commitment to progress in this area of the negotiations in line with the Doha mandate. The Council adopts the recommendations agreed by the Special Session, set out in Annex C to this document, on the basis of which further progress in the services negotiations will be pursued. Revised offers should be tabled by May 2005.

(f)  Other negotiating bodies:

Rules, Trade & Environment and TRIPS: the General Council takes note of the reports to the TNC by the Negotiating Group on Rules and by the Special Sessions of the Committee on Trade and Environment and the TRIPS Council (3). The Council reaffirms Members' commitment to progress in all of these areas of the negotiations in line with the Doha mandates.

Dispute Settlement: the General Council takes note of the report to the TNC by the Special Session of the Dispute Settlement Body (4) and reaffirms Members' commitment to progress in this area of the negotiations in line with the Doha mandate. The Council adopts the TNC's recommendation that work in the Special Session should continue on the basis set out by the Chairman of that body in his report to the TNC.

(g)  Trade Facilitation: taking note of the work done on trade facilitation by the Council for Trade in Goods under the mandate in paragraph 27 of the Doha Ministerial Declaration and the work carried out under the auspices of the General Council both prior to the Fifth Ministerial Conference and after its conclusion, the General Council decides by explicit consensus to commence negotiations on the basis of the modalities set out in Annex D to this document.

Relationship between Trade and Investment, Interaction between Trade and Competition Policy and Transparency in Government Procurement: the Council agrees that these issues, mentioned in the Doha Ministerial Declaration in paragraphs 20-22, 23-25 and 26 respectively, will not form part of the Work Programme set out in that Declaration and therefore no work towards negotiations on any of these issues will take place within the WTO during the Doha Round.

(h)  Other elements of the Work Programme: the General Council reaffirms the high priority Ministers at Doha gave to those elements of the Work Programme which do not involve negotiations. Noting that a number of these issues are of particular interest to developing-country Members, the Council emphasizes its commitment to fulfil the mandates given by Ministers in all these areas. To this end, the General Council and other relevant bodies shall report in line with their Doha mandates to the Sixth Session of the Ministerial Conference. The moratoria covered by paragraph 11.1 of the Doha Ministerial Decision on Implementation-related Issues and Concerns and paragraph 34 of the Doha Ministerial Declaration are extended up to the Sixth Ministerial Conference.


2.
  The General Council agrees that this Decision and its Annexes shall not be used in any dispute settlement proceeding under the DSU and shall not be used for interpreting the existing WTO Agreements.

3.
  The General Council calls on all Members to redouble their efforts towards the conclusion of a balanced overall outcome of the Doha Development Agenda in fulfilment of the commitments Ministers took at Doha. The Council agrees to continue the negotiations launched at Doha beyond the timeframe set out in paragraph 45 of the Doha Declaration, leading to the Sixth Session of the Ministerial Conference. Recalling its decision of 21 October 2003 to accept the generous offer of the Government of Hong Kong, China to host the Sixth Session, the Council further agrees that this Session will be held in December 2005.

Annex A 

Framework for Establishing Modalities in Agriculture

1.  The starting point for the current phase of the agriculture negotiations has been the mandate set out in Paragraph 13 of the Doha Ministerial Declaration. This in turn built on the long-term objective of the Agreement on Agriculture to establish a fair and market-oriented trading system through a programme of fundamental reform. The elements below offer the additional precision required at this stage of the negotiations and thus the basis for the negotiations of full modalities in the next phase. The level of ambition set by the Doha mandate will continue to be the basis for the negotiations on agriculture.

2.  The final balance will be found only at the conclusion of these subsequent negotiations and within the Single Undertaking. To achieve this balance, the modalities to be developed will need to incorporate operationally effective and meaningful provisions for special and differential treatment for developing country Members. Agriculture is of critical importance to the economic development of developing country Members and they must be able to pursue agricultural policies that are supportive of their development goals, poverty reduction strategies, food security and livelihood concerns. Non-trade concerns, as referred to in Paragraph 13 of the Doha Declaration, will be taken into account.

3.  The reforms in all three pillars form an interconnected whole and must be approached in a balanced and equitable manner.

4.  The General Council recognizes the importance of cotton for a certain number of countries and its vital importance for developing countries, especially LDCs. It will be addressed ambitiously, expeditiously, and specifically, within the agriculture negotiations. The provisions of this framework provide a basis for this approach, as does the sectoral initiative on cotton. The Special Session of the Committee on Agriculture shall ensure appropriate prioritization of the cotton issue independently from other sectoral initiatives. A subcommittee on cotton will meet periodically and report to the Special Session of the Committee on Agriculture to review progress. Work shall encompass all trade-distorting policies affecting the sector in all three pillars of market access, domestic support, and export competition, as specified in the Doha text and this Framework text.

5.  Coherence between trade and development aspects of the cotton issue will be pursued as set out in paragraph 1.b of the text to which this Framework is annexed.

DOMESTIC SUPPORT

6.  The Doha Ministerial Declaration calls for "substantial reductions in trade-distorting domestic support". With a view to achieving these substantial reductions, the negotiations in this pillar will ensure the following:

  • Special and differential treatment remains an integral component of domestic support. Modalities to be developed will include longer implementation periods and lower reduction coefficients for all types of trade-distorting domestic support and continued access to the provisions under Article 6.2.
  • There will be a strong element of harmonisation in the reductions made by developed Members. Specifically, higher levels of permitted trade-distorting domestic support will be subject to deeper cuts.
  • Each such Member will make a substantial reduction in the overall level of its trade-distorting support from bound levels.
  • As well as this overall commitment, Final Bound Total AMS and permitted de minimis levels will be subject to substantial reductions and, in the case of the Blue Box, will be capped as specified in paragraph 15 in order to ensure results that are coherent with the long-term reform objective. Any clarification or development of rules and conditions to govern trade distorting support will take this into account.

Overall Reduction: A Tiered Formula

7.  The overall base level of all trade-distorting domestic support, as measured by the Final Bound Total AMS plus permitted de minimis level and the level agreed in paragraph 8 below for Blue Box payments, will be reduced according to a tiered formula. Under this formula, Members having higher levels of trade-distorting domestic support will make greater overall reductions in order to achieve a harmonizing result. As the first instalment of the overall cut, in the first year and throughout the implementation period, the sum of all trade-distorting support will not exceed 80 per cent of the sum of Final Bound Total AMS plus permitted de minimis plus the Blue Box at the level determined in paragraph 15.

8.  The following parameters will guide the further negotiation of this tiered formula:

  • This commitment will apply as a minimum overall commitment. It will not be applied as a ceiling on reductions of overall trade-distorting domestic support, should the separate and complementary formulae to be developed for Total AMS, de minimis and Blue Box payments imply, when taken together, a deeper cut in overall trade-distorting domestic support for an individual Member.
  • The base for measuring the Blue Box component will be the higher of existing Blue Box payments during a recent representative period to be agreed and the cap established in paragraph 15 below.

Final Bound Total AMS: A Tiered Formula

9.  To achieve reductions with a harmonizing effect:

  • Final Bound Total AMS will be reduced substantially, using a tiered approach.
  • Members having higher Total AMS will make greater reductions.
  • To prevent circumvention of the objective of the Agreement through transfers of unchanged domestic support between different support categories, product-specific AMSs will be capped at their respective average levels according to a methodology to be agreed.
  • Substantial reductions in Final Bound Total AMS will result in reductions of some product-specific support.

10.  Members may make greater than formula reductions in order to achieve the required level of cut in overall trade-distorting domestic support.


De Minimis

11.  Reductions in de minimis will be negotiated taking into account the principle of special and differential treatment. Developing countries that allocate almost all de minimis support for subsistence and resource-poor farmers will be exempt.

12.  Members may make greater than formula reductions in order to achieve the required level of cut in overall trade-distorting domestic support.


Blue Box

13.  Members recognize the role of the Blue Box in promoting agricultural reforms. In this light, Article 6.5 will be reviewed so that Members may have recourse to the following measures:

  • Direct payments under production-limiting programmes if:
    • such payments are based on fixed and unchanging areas and yields; or
    • such payments are made on 85% or less of a fixed and unchanging base level of production; or
    • livestock payments are made on a fixed and unchanging number of head.

Or

  • Direct payments that do not require production if:
    • such payments are based on fixed and unchanging bases and yields; or
    • livestock payments made on a fixed and unchanging number of head; and
    • such payments are made on 85% or less of a fixed and unchanging base level of production.

14.  The above criteria, along with additional criteria will be negotiated. Any such criteria will ensure that Blue Box payments are less trade-distorting than AMS measures, it being understood that:

  • Any new criteria would need to take account of the balance of WTO rights and obligations.
  • Any new criteria to be agreed will not have the perverse effect of undoing ongoing reforms.

15.  Blue Box support will not exceed 5% of a Member’s average total value of agricultural production during an historical period. The historical period will be established in the negotiations. This ceiling will apply to any actual or potential Blue Box user from the beginning of the implementation period. In cases where a Member has placed an exceptionally large percentage of its trade-distorting support in the Blue Box, some flexibility will be provided on a basis to be agreed to ensure that such a Member is not called upon to make a wholly disproportionate cut.


Green Box

16.  Green Box criteria will be reviewed and clarified with a view to ensuring that Green Box measures have no, or at most minimal, trade-distorting effects or effects on production. Such a review and clarification will need to ensure that the basic concepts, principles and effectiveness of the Green Box remain and take due account of non-trade concerns. The improved obligations for monitoring and surveillance of all new disciplines foreshadowed in paragraph 48 below will be particularly important with respect to the Green Box.

EXPORT COMPETITION

17.  The Doha Ministerial Declaration calls for "reduction of, with a view to phasing out, all forms of export subsidies". As an outcome of the negotiations, Members agree to establish detailed modalities ensuring the parallel elimination of all forms of export subsidies and disciplines on all export measures with equivalent effect by a credible end date.


End Point

18.  The following will be eliminated by the end date to be agreed:

  • Export subsidies as scheduled.
  • Export credits, export credit guarantees or insurance programmes with repayment periods beyond 180 days.
  • Terms and conditions relating to export credits, export credit guarantees or insurance programmes with repayment periods of 180 days and below which are not in accordance with disciplines to be agreed. These disciplines will cover, inter alia, payment of interest, minimum interest rates, minimum premium requirements, and other elements which can constitute subsidies or otherwise distort trade.
  • Trade distorting practices with respect to exporting STEs including eliminating export subsidies provided to or by them, government financing, and the underwriting of losses. The issue of the future use of monopoly powers will be subject to further negotiation.
  • Provision of food aid that is not in conformity with operationally effective disciplines to be agreed. The objective of such disciplines will be to prevent commercial displacement. The role of international organizations as regards the provision of food aid by Members, including related humanitarian and developmental issues, will be addressed in the negotiations. The question of providing food aid exclusively in fully grant form will also be addressed in the negotiations.

19.  Effective transparency provisions for paragraph 18 will be established. Such provisions, in accordance with standard WTO practice, will be consistent with commercial confidentiality considerations.


Implementation

20.  Commitments and disciplines in paragraph 18 will be implemented according to a schedule and modalities to be agreed. Commitments will be implemented by annual instalments. Their phasing will take into account the need for some coherence with internal reform steps of Members.

21.  The negotiation of the elements in paragraph 18 and their implementation will ensure equivalent and parallel commitments by Members.


Special and Differential Treatment

22.  Developing country Members will benefit from longer implementation periods for the phasing out of all forms of export subsidies.

23.  Developing countries will continue to benefit from special and differential treatment under the provisions of Article 9.4 of the Agreement on Agriculture for a reasonable period, to be negotiated, after the phasing out of all forms of export subsidies and implementation of all disciplines identified above are completed.

24.  Members will ensure that the disciplines on export credits, export credit guarantees or insurance programs to be agreed will make appropriate provision for differential treatment in favour of least-developed and net food-importing developing countries as provided for in paragraph 4 of the Decision on Measures Concerning the Possible Negative Effects of the Reform Programme on Least-Developed and Net Food-Importing Developing Countries. Improved obligations for monitoring and surveillance of all new disciplines as foreshadowed in paragraph 48 will be critically important in this regard. Provisions to be agreed in this respect must not undermine the commitments undertaken by Members under the obligations in paragraph 18 above.

25.  STEs in developing country Members which enjoy special privileges to preserve domestic consumer price stability and to ensure food security will receive special consideration for maintaining monopoly status.


Special Circumstances

26.  In exceptional circumstances, which cannot be adequately covered by food aid, commercial export credits or preferential international financing facilities, ad hoc temporary financing arrangements relating to exports to developing countries may be agreed by Members. Such agreements must not have the effect of undermining commitments undertaken by Members in paragraph 18 above, and will be based on criteria and consultation procedures to be established.

MARKET ACCESS

27.  The Doha Ministerial Declaration calls for "substantial improvements in market access". Members also agreed that special and differential treatment for developing Members would be an integral part of all elements in the negotiations.


The Single Approach: a Tiered Formula

28.  To ensure that a single approach for developed and developing country Members meets all the objectives of the Doha mandate, tariff reductions will be made through a tiered formula that takes into account their different tariff structures.

29.  To ensure that such a formula will lead to substantial trade expansion, the following principles will guide its further negotiation:

  • Tariff reductions will be made from bound rates. Substantial overall tariff reductions will be achieved as a final result from negotiations.
  • Each Member (other than LDCs) will make a contribution. Operationally effective special and differential provisions for developing country Members will be an integral part of all elements.
  • Progressivity in tariff reductions will be achieved through deeper cuts in higher tariffs with flexibilities for sensitive products. Substantial improvements in market access will be achieved for all products.

30.  The number of bands, the thresholds for defining the bands and the type of tariff reduction in each band remain under negotiation. The role of a tariff cap in a tiered formula with distinct treatment for sensitive products will be further evaluated.


Sensitive Products

Selection

31.  Without undermining the overall objective of the tiered approach, Members may designate an appropriate number, to be negotiated, of tariff lines to be treated as sensitive, taking account of existing commitments for these products.

Treatment


32.  The principle of ‘substantial improvement’ will apply to each product.

33. 
Substantial improvement’ will be achieved through combinations of tariff quota commitments and tariff reductions applying to each product. However, balance in this negotiation will be found only if the final negotiated result also reflects the sensitivity of the product concerned.

34.  Some MFN-based tariff quota expansion will be required for all such products. A base for such an expansion will be established, taking account of coherent and equitable criteria to be developed in the negotiations. In order not to undermine the objective of the tiered approach, for all such products, MFN based tariff quota expansion will be provided under specific rules to be negotiated taking into account deviations from the tariff formula.


Other Elements

35.  Other elements that will give the flexibility required to reach a final balanced result include reduction or elimination of in-quota tariff rates, and operationally effective improvements in tariff quota administration for existing tariff quotas so as to enable Members, and particularly developing country Members, to fully benefit from the market access opportunities under tariff rate quotas.

36.  Tariff escalation will be addressed through a formula to be agreed.

37.  The issue of tariff simplification remains under negotiation.

38.  The question of the special agricultural safeguard (SSG) remains under negotiation.


Special and differential treatment

39.  Having regard to their rural development, food security and/or livelihood security needs, special and differential treatment for developing countries will be an integral part of all elements of the negotiation, including the tariff reduction formula, the number and treatment of sensitive products, expansion of tariff rate quotas, and implementation period.

40.  Proportionality will be achieved by requiring lesser tariff reduction commitments or tariff quota expansion commitments from developing country Members.

41.  Developing country Members will have the flexibility to designate an appropriate number of products as Special Products, based on criteria of food security, livelihood security and rural development needs. These products will be eligible for more flexible treatment. The criteria and treatment of these products will be further specified during the negotiation phase and will recognize the fundamental importance of Special Products to developing countries.

42.  A Special Safeguard Mechanism (SSM) will be established for use by developing country Members.

43.  Full implementation of the long-standing commitment to achieve the fullest liberalisation of trade in tropical agricultural products and for products of particular importance to the diversification of production from the growing of illicit narcotic crops is overdue and will be addressed effectively in the market access negotiations.

44.  The importance of long-standing preferences is fully recognised. The issue of preference erosion will be addressed. For the further consideration in this regard, paragraph 16 and other relevant provisions of TN/AG/W/1/Rev.1 will be used as a reference.

LEAST- DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

45.  Least-Developed Countries, which will have full access to all special and differential treatment provisions above, are not required to undertake reduction commitments. Developed Members, and developing country Members in a position to do so, should provide duty-free and quota-free market access for products originating from least-developed countries.

46.  Work on cotton under all the pillars will reflect the vital importance of this sector to certain LDC Members and we will work to achieve ambitious results expeditiously.

RECENTLY ACCEDED MEMBERS

47.  The particular concerns of recently acceded Members will be effectively addressed through specific flexibility provisions.

MONITORING AND SURVEILLANCE

48.  Article 18 of the Agreement on Agriculture will be amended with a view to enhancing monitoring so as to effectively ensure full transparency, including through timely and complete notifications with respect to the commitments in market access, domestic support and export competition. The particular concerns of developing countries in this regard will be addressed.

OTHER ISSUES

49   Issues of interest but not agreed: sectoral initiatives, differential export taxes, GIs.

50.  Disciplines on export prohibitions and restrictions in Article 12.1 of the Agreement on Agriculture will be strengthened.

Annex B 

Framework for Establishing Modalities in Market Access for Non-Agricultural Products

1.  This Framework contains the initial elements for future work on modalities by the Negotiating Group on Market Access. Additional negotiations are required to reach agreement on the specifics of some of these elements. These relate to the formula, the issues concerning the treatment of unbound tariffs in indent two of paragraph 5, the flexibilities for developing-country participants, the issue of participation in the sectorial tariff component and the preferences. In order to finalize the modalities, the Negotiating Group is instructed to address these issues expeditiously in a manner consistent with the mandate of paragraph 16 of the Doha Ministerial Declaration and the overall balance therein.

2.  We reaffirm that negotiations on market access for non-agricultural products shall aim to reduce or as appropriate eliminate tariffs, including the reduction or elimination of tariff peaks, high tariffs, and tariff escalation, as well as non-tariff barriers, in particular on products of export interest to developing countries. We also reaffirm the importance of special and differential treatment and less than full reciprocity in reduction commitments as integral parts of the modalities.

3.  We acknowledge the substantial work undertaken by the Negotiating Group on Market Access and the progress towards achieving an agreement on negotiating modalities. We take note of the constructive dialogue on the Chair's Draft Elements of Modalities (TN/MA/W/35/Rev.1) and confirm our intention to use this document as a reference for the future work of the Negotiating Group. We instruct the Negotiating Group to continue its work, as mandated by paragraph 16 of the Doha Ministerial Declaration with its corresponding references to the relevant provisions of Article XXVIII bis of GATT 1994 and to the provisions cited in paragraph 50 of the Doha Ministerial Declaration, on the basis set out below.

4.  We recognize that a formula approach is key to reducing tariffs, and reducing or eliminating tariff peaks, high tariffs, and tariff escalation. We agree that the Negotiating Group should continue its work on a non-linear formula applied on a line-by-line basis which shall take fully into account the special needs and interests of developing and least-developed country participants, including through less than full reciprocity in reduction commitments.

5.  We further agree on the following elements regarding the formula:

  • product coverage shall be comprehensive without a priori exclusions;
  • tariff reductions or elimination shall commence from the bound rates after full implementation of current concessions; however, for unbound tariff lines, the basis for commencing the tariff reductions shall be [two] times the MFN applied rate in the base year;
  • the base year for MFN applied tariff rates shall be 2001 (applicable rates on 14 November);
  • credit shall be given for autonomous liberalization by developing countries provided that the tariff lines were bound on an MFN basis in the WTO since the conclusion of the Uruguay Round;
  • all non-ad valorem duties shall be converted to ad valorem equivalents on the basis of a methodology to be determined and bound in ad valorem terms;
  • negotiations shall commence on the basis of the HS96 or HS2002 nomenclature, with the results of the negotiations to be finalized in HS2002 nomenclature;
  • the reference period for import data shall be 1999-2001.

6.  We furthermore agree that, as an exception, participants with a binding coverage of non-agricultural tariff lines of less than [35] percent would be exempt from making tariff reductions through the formula. Instead, we expect them to bind [100] percent of non-agricultural tariff lines at an average level that does not exceed the overall average of bound tariffs for all developing countries after full implementation of current concessions.

7.  We recognize that a sectorial tariff component, aiming at elimination or harmonization is another key element to achieving the objectives of paragraph 16 of the Doha Ministerial Declaration with regard to the reduction or elimination of tariffs, in particular on products of export interest to developing countries. We recognize that participation by all participants will be important to that effect. We therefore instruct the Negotiating Group to pursue its discussions on such a component, with a view to defining product coverage, participation, and adequate provisions of flexibility for developing-country participants.

8.  We agree that developing-country participants shall have longer implementation periods for tariff reductions. In addition, they shall be given the following flexibility:

a) applying less than formula cuts to up to [10] percent of the tariff lines provided that the cuts are no less than half the formula cuts and that these tariff lines do not exceed [10] percent of the total value of a Member's imports; or

b) keeping, as an exception, tariff lines unbound, or not applying formula cuts for up to [5] percent of tariff lines provided they do not exceed [5] percent of the total value of a Member's imports.

We furthermore agree that this flexibility could not be used to exclude entire HS Chapters.

9.  We agree that least-developed country participants shall not be required to apply the formula nor participate in the sectorial approach, however, as part of their contribution to this round of negotiations, they are expected to substantially increase their level of binding commitments.

10.  Furthermore, in recognition of the need to enhance the integration of least-developed countries into the multilateral trading system and support the diversification of their production and export base, we call upon developed-country participants and other participants who so decide, to grant on an autonomous basis duty-free and quota-free market access for non-agricultural products originating from least-developed countries by the year […].

11.  We recognize that newly acceded Members shall have recourse to special provisions for tariff reductions in order to take into account their extensive market access commitments undertaken as part of their accession and that staged tariff reductions are still being implemented in many cases. We instruct the Negotiating Group to further elaborate on such provisions.

12.  We agree that pending agreement on core modalities for tariffs, the possibilities of supplementary modalities such as zero-for-zero sector elimination, sectorial harmonization, and request & offer, should be kept open.

13.  In addition, we ask developed-country participants and other participants who so decide to consider the elimination of low duties.

14.  We recognize that NTBs are an integral and equally important part of these negotiations and instruct participants to intensify their work on NTBs. In particular, we encourage all participants to make notifications on NTBs by 31 October 2004 and to proceed with identification, examination, categorization, and ultimately negotiations on NTBs. We take note that the modalities for addressing NTBs in these negotiations could include request/offer, horizontal, or vertical approaches; and should fully take into account the principle of special and differential treatment for developing and least-developed country participants.

15.  We recognize that appropriate studies and capacity building measures shall be an integral part of the modalities to be agreed. We also recognize the work that has already been undertaken in these areas and ask participants to continue to identify such issues to improve participation in the negotiations.

16.  We recognize the challenges that may be faced by non-reciprocal preference beneficiary Members and those Members that are at present highly dependent on tariff revenue as a result of these negotiations on non-agricultural products. We instruct the Negotiating Group to take into consideration, in the course of its work, the particular needs that may arise for the Members concerned.

17.  We furthermore encourage the Negotiating Group to work closely with the Committee on Trade and Environment in Special Session with a view to addressing the issue of non-agricultural environmental goods covered in paragraph 31 (iii) of the Doha Ministerial Declaration.

Annex C 

Recommendations of the Special Session of the Council for Trade in Services

(a)  Members who have not yet submitted their initial offers must do so as soon as possible.

(b)
  A date for the submission of a round of revised offers should be established as soon as feasible.

(c)
  With a view to providing effective market access to all Members and in order to ensure a substantive outcome, Members shall strive to ensure a high quality of offers, particularly in sectors and modes of supply of export interest to developing countries, with special attention to be given to least-developed countries.

(d)
  Members shall aim to achieve progressively higher levels of liberalization with no a priori exclusion of any service sector or mode of supply and shall give special attention to sectors and modes of supply of export interest to developing countries. Members note the interest of developing countries, as well as other Members, in Mode 4.

(e)
  Members must intensify their efforts to conclude the negotiations on rule-making under GATS Articles VI:4, X, XIII and XV in accordance with their respective mandates and deadlines.

(f)
  Targeted technical assistance should be provided with a view to enabling developing countries to participate effectively in the negotiations.

(g)
  For the purpose of the Sixth Ministerial meeting, the Special Session of the Council for Trade in Services shall review progress in these negotiations and provide a full report to the Trade Negotiations Committee, including possible recommendations.

Annex D 

Modalities for Negotiations on Trade Facilitation

1.  Negotiations shall aim to clarify and improve relevant aspects of Articles V, VIII and X of the GATT 1994 with a view to further expediting the movement, release and clearance of goods, including goods in transit (5). Negotiations shall also aim at enhancing technical assistance and support for capacity building in this area. The negotiations shall further aim at provisions for effective cooperation between customs or any other appropriate authorities on trade facilitation and customs compliance issues.

2.  The results of the negotiations shall take fully into account the principle of special and differential treatment for developing and least-developed countries. Members recognize that this principle should extend beyond the granting of traditional transition periods for implementing commitments. In particular, the extent and the timing of entering into commitments shall be related to the implementation capacities of developing and least-developed Members. It is further agreed that those Members would not be obliged to undertake investments in infrastructure projects beyond their means.

3.  Least-developed country Members will only be required to undertake commitments to the extent consistent with their individual development, financial and trade needs or their administrative and institutional capabilities.

4.  As an integral part of the negotiations, Members shall seek to identify their trade facilitation needs and priorities, particularly those of developing and least-developed countries, and shall also address the concerns of developing and least-developed countries related to cost implications of proposed measures.

5.  It is recognized that the provision of technical assistance and support for capacity building is vital for developing and least-developed countries to enable them to fully participate in and benefit from the negotiations. Members, in particular developed countries, therefore commit themselves to adequately ensure such support and assistance during the negotiations (
6).

6.  Support and assistance should also be provided to help developing and least-developed countries implement the commitments resulting from the negotiations, in accordance with their nature and scope. In this context, it is recognized that negotiations could lead to certain commitments whose implementation would require support for infrastructure development on the part of some Members. In these limited cases, developed-country Members will make every effort to ensure support and assistance directly related to the nature and scope of the commitments in order to allow implementation. It is understood, however, that in cases where required support and assistance for such infrastructure is not forthcoming, and where a developing or least-developed Member continues to lack the necessary capacity, implementation will not be required. While every effort will be made to ensure the necessary support and assistance, it is understood that the commitments by developed countries to provide such support are not open-ended.

7.  Members agree to review the effectiveness of the support and assistance provided and its ability to support the implementation of the results of the negotiations.

8.  In order to make technical assistance and capacity building more effective and operational and to ensure better coherence, Members shall invite relevant international organizations, including the IMF, OECD, UNCTAD, WCO and the World Bank to undertake a collaborative effort in this regard.

9.  Due account shall be taken of the relevant work of the WCO and other relevant international organizations in this area.

10.  Paragraphs 45-51 of the Doha Ministerial Declaration shall apply to these negotiations. At its first meeting after the July session of the General Council, the Trade Negotiations Committee shall establish a Negotiating Group on Trade Facilitation and appoint its Chair. The first meeting of the Negotiating Group shall agree on a work plan and schedule of meetings.